The single crystal alumina has a relatively high bending strength in the c-axis direction, good wear resistance, good heat resistance, and can be directly fixed to the bone. Has been used as artificial bone, roots, joints, bolts. Moreover, the bolt does not rust and does not dissolve harmful ions. Unlike metal bolts, it is not necessary to take out the body. In the late 1960s, it was widely used as a hard tissue repair. From the 1970s to the mid-1980s, many countries in the world, such as the United States, Japan, Switzerland and other countries, have conducted extensive research and application on oxide ceramics, especially alumina bioceramics. Because the alumina ceramic is implanted into the human body, the surface of the human body produces a very thin fiber membrane, and the interface has no chemical reaction. It is mostly used for total hip reduction and repair and femoral and hip joints. The single crystal alumina produced by the flame melting method has high strength, good wear resistance, and can be processed finely to form artificial roots and fracture fixers. Polycrystalline alumina, corundum, is used to make artificial hip joints, artificial bones, artificial roots and joints. The mechanical properties of single crystal alumina ceramics are better than those of polycrystalline alumina, which is suitable for parts with heavy negative and high wear resistance, but the disadvantage is that it is difficult to process. Chinese ceramics can fully meet ISO standards in laboratory research, but there is still a gap in clinical use, and materials do not meet ISO standards.
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