The magnetic properties of matter come from the atomic magnetic moment, which is characterized by electron orbital motion centered on the nucleus. On the one hand, electrons outside the nucleus orbit around the nucleus along a certain orbit. Due to electromagnetic induction, orbital magnetic moments are generated. On the other hand, the electron itself continues to make a spin motion, producing a spin magnetic moment, and the magnetic moment of the atom is the sum of the two magnetic moments.
There is a special interaction in some substances, which can affect the relative orientation of the magnetic moments of magnetic atoms and ions in a substance. When a substance having such a strong effect is at a lower temperature, the magnetic moment may form an ordered arrangement. There are differences in the arrangement of magnetic moments in matter, in which ferromagnetic, ferrimagnetic, and antiferromagnetic arrangements are ordered. Generally speaking, a magnetic material means a substance which is ferromagnetic or ferrimagnetic at a normal temperature and exhibits a strong magnetic property in a macroscopic manner, and a magnetic ceramic is mostly a ferrimagnetic material.
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